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Term Meaning
AAO Adjacency attestation. An AAO is a digitally signed object that verifies that an AS has made an attestation that it has an inter-domain adjacency with one or more other ASes.
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
Advertisement See Routing advertisement
AfriNIC African Network Information Centre
APNIC Asia Pacific Network Information Centre
APRICOT Asia Pacific Regional Internet Conference on Operation Technologies
ARIN American Registry for Internet Numbers
ARP Address Resolution Protocol
ARPANET Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
AS Autonomous System. An AS is a group of IP networks run by one or more network operators with a single clearly defined routing policy.
ASn Autonomous System number. As ASn is a unique two- or four-byte number associated with an AS. The ASn is used as an identifier to allow the AS to exchange dynamic routing information with other ASes.
ASO Address Supporting Organization
AW Assignment Window
BIND Berkley Internet Name Daemon
BGP Border Gateway Protocol
Blackholing Where false routing advertisements redirect traffic away from its intended destination and instead are directed to a sink point. This results in an effective Denial of Service (DoS), where the target service is taken offline. A side effect may be a rearrangement of traffic flows that could overload some network links.
ccTLD Country Code Top Level Domain
Certificate extensions To make the original X.509 certificate standard suitable for Resource Certification it needed some minor modifications, or extensions, to provide a place to record the Internet number resources held by the private key holder. See X.509.
CIDR Classless Inter Domain Routing
Digital certificate A digital certificate is an electronic certificate used to prove your identity or your right to access information or services online. A digital certificate is required in order to access secured services of APNIC. The digital certificates used by APNIC conform to Standard X.509.
Digital signature A digital signature is an electronic signature which authenticates the identity of a message sender, or document signer and possibly to ensure that the original content of the message or document that has arrived unchanged.
DNS Domain Name System
DNSO Domain Name Supporting Organization
DoS Denial of Service and network destabilization: Large-scale generation of updates and withdrawals of routes that cause severe capacity pressures on routers, to the point where routers may fail. This in turn generates further instability in the routing system.
EGP Exterior Gateway Protocol
EIGRP Extended Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
ERX Early Registration Transfer
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
gTLD Generic Top Level Domain
IAB Internet Architecture Board
IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
IBGP Interior Border Gateway Protocol
ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Numbers
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol
IDN Internationalized Domain Name
IEPG International Engineering & Planning Group
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IGP Interior Gateway Protocol
Injection Refers to the method of inserting routing information into the routing table. In context, it can also imply the injection of false routing information.
Impersonation Where false routing advertisements redirect traffic away from the intended destination and instead directs traffic to a site that masquerades as the destination service. This form of masquerading is used to gather otherwise confidential information from users of the original service. See Phishing.
INET Internet Society annual conference
Inspection and alteration Where false routing advertisements cause traffic to an intended destination to be forwarded to a compromised network segment. Here the traffic may be inspected, or even altered before being passed onward to the actual destination.
Internet resources Internet resources include IPv4, IPv6 address blocks and AS numbers.
INTERNIC Internet Network Information Center
IP Internet Protocol
IPNG Internet Protocol Next Generation
IRR Internet Routing Registry
ISIS Intermediate System to Intermediate System
ISOC Internet Society
ISP Internet Service Provider
ITU International Telecommunication Union
ITU-T The Telecommunications standardization sector of the International Telecommunication Union
JANOG Japan Network Operators Group
LACNIC Latin American & Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry
LAN Local Area Network
LIR Local Internet Registry
MTU Maximum Transmission Unit
NANOG North American Network Operators Group
NAT Network Address Translation
NIR National Internet Registry
NOC Network Operation Centre
NRO Number Resource Organization
NRO NC NRO Number Council
OSPF Open Shortest Path First
PA PA(Provider Aggregatable) address space is managed by LIRs.
PACNOG Pacific Network Operators Group
PGP Pretty Good Privacy
Phishing Any of several methods designed to illegally acquire sensitive or private information such as bank details, login information or personal details by fraudulently masquerading as a trustworthy entity.
PI PI (Provider Independent) address space is directly assigned to networks from RIRs.
POP Post Office Protocol Point Of Presence
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol
PSO Protocol Supporting Organization
RAS Remote Access Server
RFC Request For Comments
RIP Routing Information Protocol
RIPE Resaux IP Europeens
RIPE NCC RIPE Network Coordination Centre
RIR Regional Internet Registry
ROA A Route Origin Attestation is a digitally signed object that provides a means of verifying that an IP address block holder has authorized an Autonomous System (AS) to originate routes to one or more prefixes within the address block.
Routing advertisements Each router announces or advertises a list of routes it can process, expressed as ranges of IP addresses for which it can provide routing service. Put simply, a router tells its peers, "If you have traffic intended for IP addresses in the range between and (for example), pass me those packets.
SANOG South Asia Network Operators Group
TCP Transmission Control Protocol
TLD Top Level Domain
UDP User Datagram Protocol
VLAN Virtual Local Area Network
VLSM Variable Length Subnet Mask
VPN Virtual Private Network
VSA Vendor Specific Attributes
WAN Wide Area Network
WGIG Working Group on Internet Governance
WSIS World Summit on the Information Society
W3C World Wide Web Consortium
XML Extensible Markup Language
X.509 An X.509 certificate is an ITU-T standard for digital certificates that uses PKI digital certificates in a strict hierarchical authentication structure. Sometimes referred to as an RFC3280, or more recently an RFC5280, certificate (RFC3280 defined a form of X.509 called X.509v3, and this has been updated recently by RFC5280. In all important ways this is exactly the same as an X.509 certificate, it just clarifies some forms of information and use). Extensions to the X.509 certificate format allow space for recording IP address and AS numbers (RFC 3779). The extension binds a list of IP address blocks and AS numbers to the subject of a certificate.
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